Organization

Organization for Analytical Writing

Structure for Detailed Paragraph

When writing a detailed paragraph, use this structure to guide you.

  1. Point=Write a topic sentence that states the main idea or main point of the paragraph.
  2. Evidence=Provide textual examples and/or short quotes from the text to support your point. Some other examples of evidence may include facts, examples, details, cause/effect relationships, anecdotes, testimonials, and statistics.
  3. Elaborate how your evidence relates to the point.
  4. Evidence=Provide textual examples and/or short quotes from the text to support your point. Some other examples of evidence may include facts, examples, details, cause/effect relationships, anecdotes, testimonials, and statistics.
  5. Elaborate how your evidence relates to the point.
  6. Evidence=Provide textual examples and/or short quotes from the text to support your point. Some other examples of evidence may include facts, examples, details, cause/effect relationships, anecdotes, testimonials, and statistics.
  7. Elaborate how your evidence relates to the point.
  8. Link: Include a concluding sentence that links together the preceding sentences by emphasizing the main idea, and also linking to the next paragraph.

Remember to use transition words when connecting evidence.

Emphasis: undoubtedly, indeed, obviously, particularly, in particular, especially, clearly, importantly, absolutely, definitely, without a doubt, never, it should be noted

Addition: furthermore, additionally, in addition, also, along with, besides, moreover, not only...but also, furthermore, further, first, second, etc.

Contrast: however, despite, in contrast, even though, nevertheless, conversely, alternatively, nonetheless, on the other hand

Order: first/firstly, second/secondly, finally, at this time, following, previously, before, subsequently, etc.

Result: as a result, as a consequence, therefore, thus, for this reason, hence, etc.

Illustration: for example, for instance, in this case, to demonstrate, to clarify, to illustrate, equally important, such as, including, etc.

Comparison: similarly, equally, likewise, just as, just like, similar to, same, by the same token, in the same way, etc.

Summary: in conclusion, to summarize, altogether, in short, to sum up, in summary, briefly, to conclude

Example of 11 Sentence Paragraph for Modeling

How do contradictions, oppositions, or juxtapositions progress the plot of the play?

When writing your detailed paragraph, please include at least 11 sentences to fully develop your point. Use the following model as a guide.

Point=Write a topic sentence that states the main idea or main point of the paragraph.

Evidence=Provide textual examples and/or short quotes from the text to support your point. Some other examples of evidence may include facts, examples, details, cause/effect relationships, anecdotes, testimonials, and statistics.

Elaborate how your evidence relates to the point.

Evidence=Provide textual examples and/or short quotes from the text to support your point. Some other examples of evidence may include facts, examples, details, cause/effect relationships, anecdotes, testimonials, and statistics.

Elaborate how your evidence relates to the point.

Link: Include a concluding sentence that links together the preceding sentences by emphasizing the main idea, and also linking to the next paragraph.


P Shakespeare uses metaphorical and ironic language in order to express that things are not what they seem. E When Claudius and Gertrude confront Hamlet about his grief, he implies that they really have no understanding to the depths of his despair. He tells his mother, “Seem, madam! nay it is; I know not ‘seems’” (1.2.78). E In this passage, he is responding to Gertrude’s request for him to not continuing mourning his father’s death. Through this statement, Hamlet suggests that his mother has no idea of the suffering he experiences by playing on the word “seems.” E Shakespeare then includes a series of litotes or understatements in order to emphasize his grief. When he says that “Nor customary suits of solemn black” or “Nor windy suspiration of forced breath,” he implies that this is just his appearance of grief--it is not truly how he feels. E By starting each line with “Nor” or No,” he shows the contrast between reality and his feelings by negating his emotions. E His metaphorical language also reinforces this theme. Hamlet says that “nor the fruitful river in the eye” can “denote” his true feelings. E Shakespeare uses this metaphor of a river to show the tears that he has over his father’s death. With this comparison, he reinforces the idea that there are different shapes to grieving, and the river in the eye, or the unending tears are only part of his grief. L Hamlet concludes by stating that man has many “actions” that he might play in his outward appearance of grief, but he implies that it is only the individual on the inside who can truly see to the extent of one’s suffering.

Development of Thesis Statement

Determine THEME (WHAT) + TECHNIQUE (HOW/WHY)= DEVELOP THESIS

Theme of Karen Russell, Swamplandia (2011)

  • Children can recognize the different roles that their parents play.
  • Children can appreciate the accomplishments of their parents.
  • People have different sides of them that different people get to see

Technique

  • First person point of view
  • Admiring, respectful tone
  • Kinesthetic, auditory imagery
  • Vivid, descriptive setting
  • Figurative language

ONE WORK: Writing your thesis

In (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, relies, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, reinforce, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme).

Possible Thesis Statements:

  • In Swamplandia, by Karen Russel, the author uses a first person POV, an admiring tone, and kinesthetic word choice to depict the theme that people have different sides to them that various people see.
  • Through the use of vivid imagery and an admirable tone, Karen Russell shows how a child can recognize the different roles that their parents can play.
  • Through the use of figurative language, descriptive diction, and admiring tone, Karen Russel communicates how children can appreciate the accomplishments of their parents.
  • In Swamplandia, by Karen Russell, the author uses first person point view, figurative language, kinesthetic imagery, and descriptive setting to show how a person has different sides that different people get to see.


“The Machinist, Teaching His Daughter to Play the Piano” by BH Fairchild

Theme

  • People find forms of expression to connect with others.
  • People can connect with others through common interests.
  • People can rely on areas of interests to escape reality or struggles.

Technique

  • Extended metaphor
  • Cacophonous language
  • Paradoxical language
  • Kinesthetic, auditory, visual, organic imagery
  • Distant yet respectful tone

Thesis

  • The author uses cacophonous language, extended metaphors, and organic imagery to portray the theme that people can connect with others through common interests.
  • Through the use of an extended metaphor, cacophonous and paradoxical language, and a distant yet respectful tone, Fairchild communicates the idea that people can connect through shared hobbies to escape the struggles of reality.
  • The author uses paradoxical and cacophonous language, as well as an extended metaphor with a distant tone to show the idea that people find different forms of expressions to connect with others.
  • Through extended metaphor, a distant yet respectful tone, kinesthetic and organic imagery, and paradoxical language, Fairchild shows that people rely on areas of interests in order to escape reality and struggles

Structuring a Five Paragraph Essay

OUTLINE

Consider this outline for structuring a five paragraph essay.

  1. Introduction
    1. Hook (question, quote, imagery, interesting statement)
    2. Introduce the text/topic and give context
    3. End with a thesis statement introducing your claim
  2. Paragraph #1:
    1. Point: Write a topic sentence that states the main idea or main point of the paragraph.
    2. Evidence: Provide textual examples and/or short quotes from the text to support your point. Some other examples of evidence may include facts, examples, details, cause/effect relationships, anecdotes, etc.
    3. Elaborate: Elaborate on how your evidence relates to the point.
    4. Evidence: Provide textual examples and/or short quotes from the text to support your point. Some other examples of evidence may include facts, examples, details, cause/effect relationships, anecdotes, etc.
    5. Elaborate: Elaborate on how your evidence relates to the point.
    6. Link: Include a concluding sentence that links together the preceding sentences by emphasizing the main idea, and also linking to the next paragraph.
  3. Paragraph #2: (same format as above)
    1. Point
    2. Evidence
    3. Explain
    4. Evidence
    5. Explain
    6. Link
  4. Paragraph #3: (same format as above)
    1. Point
    2. Evidence
    3. Explain
    4. Evidence
    5. Explain
  5. Concluding paragraph
    1. Restate thesis
    2. Summarize how you proved your main points & leave on an insight about the topic

Comparing and Contrasting Texts

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS STRUCTURE

TWO WORKS: Writing the thesis statement

In (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme), while in (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme).

OR

In (Name of Work) and (Name of Work), both (Full Name of First Author) and (Full Name of Second Author) (use, employ, utilize, rely on) (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme)

ORGANIZING A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

EXAMPLE OF OUTLINE

In what ways and with what effects have at least two playwrights you have studied used dramatic irony? Recommend 6 to 8 paragraphs (based on 2 or 3 points to compare) 2 HOURS BLOCK METHOD

  1. Thesis:
    1. In both Hamlet and the Importance of Being Earnest, William Shakespeare and Oscar Wilde use dramatic irony to intensify the conflict and evoke an emotional response from the audience. While Shakespeare incites sympathy, grief, and dread to show how deceitful actions can lead to destruction, Wilde evokes laughter in order to satirize the hypocritical and superficial social constructs of Victorian society.
  2. Outline: Block Method --One text, then another
    1. Hamlet
      1. Dramatic irony to intensify the conflict
        1. As soon as the ghost appears and speaks to Hamlet about avenging his death, Hamlet has a clear goal for the play.
      2. Dramatic irony to evoke sympathy
        1. Audience gains sympathy for Hamlet when we are privied to his “To Be or Not To Be” soliloquy where he contemplates his own uncertainty about how to proceed: accept the situation, kill himself, or kill Claudius.
      3. Dramatic irony to incite grief and dread to reveal the theme that deceit and dishonesty can lead to destruction
        1. During the catastrophe, the audience is aware of Claudius and Laertes’ plans to kill Hamlet, as the queen dies from drinking the cup, the audience has a sense of dread and grief as she dies before Hamlet’s eyes.
    2. Importance of Being Earnest:
      1. Dramatic irony to intensify the conflict
        1. With the dramatic arrival of Algernon posing as Earnest, the audience sees how Jack’s city life is now merging with his country life. It only gets more intense when Jack shows up pronouncing his brother’s death.
      2. Dramatic irony to evoke laughter and ridiculousness, exaggerated behaviors
        1. Comedy of manners between Gwendolen and Cecily create a humorous scene of conflict when the audience knows the truth of Jack and Algernon’s real identities
      3. Dramatic irony to satirize, provide social commentary, exposing superficiality and hypocrisy
        1. Women are obsessed with name Ernest because of the pun Earnest, exposes the superficial nature of appearances during Victorian era

ANOTHER OUTLINE

In what ways and with what effects have at least two playwrights you have studied used dramatic irony? Recommend 6 to 8 paragraphs (based on 2 or 3 points to compare) POINT-BY-POINT METHOD --MORE SOPHISTICATED ORGANIZATION

  1. Thesis:
    1. In both Hamlet and the Importance of Being Earnest, William Shakespeare and Oscar Wilde use dramatic irony to intensify the conflict and evoke an emotional response from the audience. While Shakespeare incites sympathy, grief, and dread to show how deceitful actions can lead to destruction, Wilde evokes laughter in order to satirize the hypocritical and superficial social constructs of Victorian society.
  2. Outline: Point by Point method; one text at a time
  3. Point One: Dramatic irony intensifies the conflict
    1. Hamlet: Dramatic irony to intensify the conflict
      1. Dramatic incitement: As soon as the ghost appears and speaks to Hamlet about avenging his death, Hamlet has a clear goal for the play.
    2. Importance of Being Earnest: Dramatic irony to intensify the conflict
      1. Dramatic incitement:With the dramatic arrival of Algernon posing as Earnest, the audience sees how Jack’s city life is now merging with his country life. It only gets more intense when Jack shows up pronouncing his brother’s death.
  4. Point Two: Dramatic irony to evoke an emotional response
    1. Hamlet: Dramatic irony to evoke sympathy
      1. Audience gains sympathy for Hamlet when we are privied to his To Be or Not To Be soliloquy where he contemplates his own uncertainty about how to proceed: accept the situation, kill himself, or kill Claudius.
    2. Importance of Being Earnest: Dramatic irony to evoke laughter
      1. Comedy of manners between Gwendolen and Cecily create a humorous scene of conflict when the audience knows the truth of Jack and Algernon’s real identities
  5. Point Three: Dramatic irony contributes to the development of the theme, universal insights
    1. Hamlet: Dramatic irony to reinforce theme that inaction and deceit can lead to destruction
        1. During the catastrophe, the audience is aware of Claudius and Laertes’ plans to kill Hamlet, as the queen dies from drinking the cup, the audience has a sense of dread and grief as she dies before Hamlet’s eyes. The deceit of the king and Laertes and lack of communication among the characters lead to tragic events.
    2. Importance of Being Earnest: dramatic irony to reinforce the theme of hypocrisy and superficiality

Women are obsessed with name Ernest because of the pun Earnest, exposes the superficial nature of appearances during Victorian era. They say they love the person, yet it is a superficial nature based on appearances and Gwendolen says, “In matters of utmost importance, style, not

Citing Evidence

Some Signal Phrases to Use

according to

claims

points out

discusses

argues

notes

states

writes

demonstrates

argues

explains

Sentence Starters to Cite Text Evidence

The author employs (technique) in order to establish _____.

The _____tone of the passage is created through the use of _____

In the text, the author described _____.

The author states/says/implies _____

The author explains_____

The author describes _____

According to the author _____

The author explicitly states _____

According to ____, a Shakespeare scholar, _____.

In his article “_______,” _____ suggests _______.

In the chapter, “_______,” _______ underscores the importance of ______.

For example,

For instance, _____

This situation is similar to ...

The evidence suggests that _____

The fact that ______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____(give your reason) because ______(your analysis).

The fact that _____ proves that _____

This (piece of evidence) shows_____

This example illustrates _____

This point is significant because_____

The main point of the passage is to _____

The speaker’s attitude towards _____ is best described as one of _____

In this passage, the author emphasizes._____

The author juxtaposes _____ to _____ in order to _____.

The fact that _______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____ (rephrase your claim) because (your analysis).