Sentence Stems

Sentence Stems for Citing Evidence

Some Signal Phrases to Use

Nonfiction analysis

According to _________, people are often "XXXX."

______ argues that _____ when he says, "XXX."

The author ____ (claims, points out, discusses, argues, notes, states, writes, demonstrates, argues, explains, asserts ) that ______.

In the editorial, ______ writes, "XXX."

____ explains that _____ "XXX."

In the interest of _____, ______ proposes that "XXX."

____ points out that "XXX."

____ suggests ____ when he says, "XXX."


Literary analysis

Be sure to provide some context before you include your textual evidence or quote.

When (character) .... (include a verb) reflects on/confronts/describes/engages/observes/complains/remarks ......

When _____ is confronted by _______ at the _______, he starts to realize that he has_______ since __________. When says, "XXXX" (42).

_____ tries to explain ______ by saying, "XXXX" (52).

____ exhibits his true feelings to ____ when she "XXXX" (12).


Examples of Ways to Embed a Quotation



Using a COMMA…

When presented with the extravagance of Gatsby’s clothing, Daisy says, “It makes me sad because I’ve never seen such – such beautiful shirts before” (98).


According to Scout, “Atticus said the Ewells had been the disgrace of Maycomb for three generations. None of them had done an honest day’s work in his recollection” (Lee 30).


Although no one in Maycomb had seen Boo for years, “the neighborhood thought that when Mr. Radley went under Boo would come out,” but instead, Boo’s older brother, Nathan Radley moved back to town to carry out their father’s restrictions on Boo (Lee 12).


Using a COLON…

Fitzgerald uses figurative language in The Great Gatsby to highlight the gravity of Gatsby’s disappointment: “He had come a long way to this blue lawn and his dream must have seemed so close that he could hardly fail to grasp it. He did not know that it was already behind him, somewhere back in that vast obscurity beyond the city, where the dark fields of the republic rolled on under the night”(189).


Vivian hates the knights for scorning her, and she dreams of achieving glory by destroying Merlin's: "I have made his glory mine" (390).


Fitzgerald gives Nick a muted tribute to the hero: "Gatsby turned out all right at the end" (176).


Harper Lee explained Mr. Cunningham’s involvement with the mob using the following statement: “Mr. Cunningham’s basically a good man … he just has blind spots along with the rest of us” (157).


BLOCK QUOTES (LONG PASSAGES OR DIALOGUE)

You should use a block quotation when the quotation extends more than four typed lines on the page or when you use dialogue between characters.


Gatsby experiences a moment of clarity while standing with Daisy on his dock:

Possibly it had occurred to him that the colossal significance of that light had now to him vanished forever. Compared to the great distance that had separated him from Daisy it had seemed very near to her, almost touching her. It had seemed as close as a star to the moon. Now it was again a green light on a dock. His count of enchanted objects had diminished by one. (98)

Sentence Starters to Cite Text Evidence

Non-literary analysis

The author builds credibility or ethos with the reader by ______.

The writer evokes emotions or pathos in the reader through strong connotative language such as "_______" and "_______."

The author provides logical reasoning or logos by comparing and contrasting __________ and providing examples that support ____.

The author employs (technique) in order to establish _____.

The _____tone of the passage is created through the use of _____

In the text, the author described _____.

The author states/says/implies _____

The author explains_____

The author describes _____

According to the author _____

The author explicitly states _____

According to ____, a Shakespeare scholar, _____.

In his article “_______,” _____ suggests _______.

In the chapter, “_______,” _______ underscores the importance of ______.

For example,

For instance, _____

This situation is similar to ...

The evidence suggests that _____

The fact that ______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____(give your reason) because ______(your analysis).

The fact that _____ proves that _____

This (piece of evidence) shows_____

This example illustrates _____

This point is significant because_____

The author explains_____

The author describes _____

According to the author _____

The author explicitly states _____

According to ____, a Shakespeare scholar, _____.

In his article “_______,” _____ suggests _______.

In the chapter, “_______,” _______ underscores the importance of ______.

For example,

For instance, _____

This situation is similar to ...

The evidence suggests that _____

The fact that ______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____(give your reason) because ______(your analysis).

The fact that _____ proves that _____

This (piece of evidence) shows_____

This example illustrates _____

This point is significant because_____

The main point of the passage is to _____

Literary Analysis

In this situation, the character ______.

In this instance, the character _____.

The main point of the passage is to _____

The speaker’s attitude towards _____ is best described as one of _____

In this passage, the author emphasizes._____

The author juxtaposes _____ to _____ in order to _____.

The fact that _______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____ (rephrase your claim) because (your analysis).

In this instance, the author suggests ______.

The author employs (technique) in order to establish _____.

The _____tone of the passage is created through the use of _____

In the text, the author described _____.

The author states/says/implies _____

The speaker’s attitude towards _____ is best described as one of _____

In this passage, the author emphasizes._____

The author juxtaposes _____ to _____ in order to _____.

The fact that _______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____ (rephrase your claim) because (your analysis).



Sentence Stems for Writing a Thesis

ONE WORK: Writing the thesis statement

In (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme).

TWO WORKS: Writing the thesis statement for a compare/contrast essay

In (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme), while in (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme).

OR

In (Name of Work) and (Name of Work), both (Full Name of First Author) and (Full Name of Second Author) (use, employ, utilize, rely on) (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme)

Transitions

    • Use transition words to clarify between the connections you're making and your evidence.

      • TO ADD: additionally, in addition to, further, furthermore, moreover, besides, than, too, also, both-and, another, equally important, first, second, etc., again, further, last, finally, not only-but also, as well as, in the second place, next, likewise, similarly, in fact, as a result, consequently, in the same way, for example, for instance, however, thus, therefore, otherwise.

      • TO GIVE AN EXAMPLE: for example, for instance, to demonstrate, to illustrate, in this case

      • TO COMPARE/CONTRAST: whereas, but, yet, conversely, on the other hand, however, despite, nevertheless

      • TO SHOW EMPHASIS: Above all, indeed, truly, of course, certainly, surely, in fact, really, in truth, again, besides, also, furthermore, in addition.

      • TO SHOW CAUSE/EFFECT: So that, with the result that, thus, consequently, hence, accordingly, for this reason, therefore, so, because, since, due to, as a result, in other words, then, as a result, hence, thus

      • TO SUMMARIZE: All in all, overall, therefore, finally, consequently, thus, in short, in conclusion, in brief, as a result, accordingly

      • TO PROVE: in fact, because, for, since, clearly, thus, indeed, by, illustrates, demonstrates, exhibits, makes evident

      • TO SHOW EXCEPTION: although, though, yet, still, however, nevertheless, despite

      • TO SHOW TIME: After, afterward, before, then, once, next, last, at last, at length, first, second, etc., at first, formerly, rarely, usually, another, finally, soon, meanwhile, at the same time, afterwards, generally, in order to, subsequently, previously, in the meantime, immediately, eventually, concurrently, simultaneously.

      • TO CONNECT: thus, clearly, in fact, indeed, of course, specifically, in particular

See how someone who is writing about the 1920s could use various transitions.

Point The decade of 1920’s refers to a time of _____, ______, and _____ in American history. Evidence At the time, _______________. For example, __________. In fact, ______________. Elaborate For that reason, ___________. At the same time, ______________. Evidence For instance, _____________________.Elaborate Nevertheless, ___________resulting in ___________. Evidence Furthermore, ___________________. In this case, ______________________. Elaborate Although _________, ____________. However, ______________________. Link: All in all, _______________.