Sentence Stems for Citing Evidence
Some Signal Phrases to Use
the author claims, points out, discusses, argues, notes, states, writes, demonstrates, argues, explains
Sentence Starters to Cite Text Evidence
The author employs (technique) in order to establish _____.
The _____tone of the passage is created through the use of _____
In the text, the author described _____.
The author states/says/implies _____
The author explains_____
The author describes _____
According to the author _____
The author explicitly states _____
According to ____, a Shakespeare scholar, _____.
In his article “_______,” _____ suggests _______.
In the chapter, “_______,” _______ underscores the importance of ______.
For instance, _____
This situation is similar to ...
The evidence suggests that _____
The fact that ______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____(give your reason) because ______(your analysis).
The fact that _____ proves that _____
This (piece of evidence) shows_____
This example illustrates _____
This point is significant because_____
The main point of the passage is to _____
The speaker’s attitude towards _____ is best described as one of _____
In this passage, the author emphasizes._____
The author juxtaposes _____ to _____ in order to _____.
The fact that _______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____ (rephrase your claim) because (your analysis).
Sentence Stems for Writing a Thesis
ONE WORK: Writing the thesis statement
In (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme).
TWO WORKS: Writing the thesis statement for a compare/contrast essay
In (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme), while in (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme).
In (Name of Work) and (Name of Work), both (Full Name of First Author) and (Full Name of Second Author) (use, employ, utilize, rely on) (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme)
Use transition words to clarify between the connections you're making and your evidence.
TO ADD: additionally, in addition to, further, furthermore, moreover, besides, than, too, also, both-and, another, equally important, first, second, etc., again, further, last, finally, not only-but also, as well as, in the second place, next, likewise, similarly, in fact, as a result, consequently, in the same way, for example, for instance, however, thus, therefore, otherwise.
TO GIVE AN EXAMPLE: for example, for instance, to demonstrate, to illustrate, in this case
TO COMPARE/CONTRAST: whereas, but, yet, conversely, on the other hand, however, despite, nevertheless
TO SHOW EMPHASIS: Above all, indeed, truly, of course, certainly, surely, in fact, really, in truth, again, besides, also, furthermore, in addition.
TO SHOW CAUSE/EFFECT: So that, with the result that, thus, consequently, hence, accordingly, for this reason, therefore, so, because, since, due to, as a result, in other words, then, as a result, hence, thus
TO SUMMARIZE: All in all, overall, therefore, finally, consequently, thus, in short, in conclusion, in brief, as a result, accordingly
TO PROVE: in fact, because, for, since, clearly, thus, indeed, by, illustrates, demonstrates, exhibits, makes evident
TO SHOW EXCEPTION: although, though, yet, still, however, nevertheless, despite
TO SHOW TIME: After, afterward, before, then, once, next, last, at last, at length, first, second, etc., at first, formerly, rarely, usually, another, finally, soon, meanwhile, at the same time, afterwards, generally, in order to, subsequently, previously, in the meantime, immediately, eventually, concurrently, simultaneously.
TO CONNECT: thus, clearly, in fact, indeed, of course, specifically, in particular
See how someone who is writing about the 1920s could use various transitions.