Sentence Stems

Sentence Stems for Citing Evidence

Some Signal Phrases to Use

according to

the author claims, points out, discusses, argues, notes, states, writes, demonstrates, argues, explains

Sentence Starters to Cite Text Evidence

The author employs (technique) in order to establish _____.

The _____tone of the passage is created through the use of _____

In the text, the author described _____.

The author states/says/implies _____

The author explains_____

The author describes _____

According to the author _____

The author explicitly states _____

According to ____, a Shakespeare scholar, _____.

In his article “_______,” _____ suggests _______.

In the chapter, “_______,” _______ underscores the importance of ______.

For example,

For instance, _____

This situation is similar to ...

The evidence suggests that _____

The fact that ______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____(give your reason) because ______(your analysis).

The fact that _____ proves that _____

This (piece of evidence) shows_____

This example illustrates _____

This point is significant because_____

The main point of the passage is to _____

The speaker’s attitude towards _____ is best described as one of _____

In this passage, the author emphasizes._____

The author juxtaposes _____ to _____ in order to _____.

The fact that _______(rephrase your evidence) illustrates that _____ (rephrase your claim) because (your analysis).

Sentence Stems for Writing a Thesis

ONE WORK: Writing the thesis statement

In (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme).

TWO WORKS: Writing the thesis statement for a compare/contrast essay

In (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme), while in (Name of Work), (Full Name of Author) (uses, employs, utilizes), (device/strategy/technique), and (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme).


In (Name of Work) and (Name of Work), both (Full Name of First Author) and (Full Name of Second Author) (use, employ, utilize, rely on) (device/strategy/technique) to (show, reveal, emphasize, argue, insist, point out) that (effect/purpose/theme)


    • Use transition words to clarify between the connections you're making and your evidence.

      • TO ADD: additionally, in addition to, further, furthermore, moreover, besides, than, too, also, both-and, another, equally important, first, second, etc., again, further, last, finally, not only-but also, as well as, in the second place, next, likewise, similarly, in fact, as a result, consequently, in the same way, for example, for instance, however, thus, therefore, otherwise.

      • TO GIVE AN EXAMPLE: for example, for instance, to demonstrate, to illustrate, in this case

      • TO COMPARE/CONTRAST: whereas, but, yet, conversely, on the other hand, however, despite, nevertheless

      • TO SHOW EMPHASIS: Above all, indeed, truly, of course, certainly, surely, in fact, really, in truth, again, besides, also, furthermore, in addition.

      • TO SHOW CAUSE/EFFECT: So that, with the result that, thus, consequently, hence, accordingly, for this reason, therefore, so, because, since, due to, as a result, in other words, then, as a result, hence, thus

      • TO SUMMARIZE: All in all, overall, therefore, finally, consequently, thus, in short, in conclusion, in brief, as a result, accordingly

      • TO PROVE: in fact, because, for, since, clearly, thus, indeed, by, illustrates, demonstrates, exhibits, makes evident

      • TO SHOW EXCEPTION: although, though, yet, still, however, nevertheless, despite

      • TO SHOW TIME: After, afterward, before, then, once, next, last, at last, at length, first, second, etc., at first, formerly, rarely, usually, another, finally, soon, meanwhile, at the same time, afterwards, generally, in order to, subsequently, previously, in the meantime, immediately, eventually, concurrently, simultaneously.

      • TO CONNECT: thus, clearly, in fact, indeed, of course, specifically, in particular

See how someone who is writing about the 1920s could use various transitions.

Point The decade of 1920’s refers to a time of _____, ______, and _____ in American history. Evidence At the time, _______________. For example, __________. In fact, ______________. Elaborate For that reason, ___________. At the same time, ______________. Evidence For instance, _____________________.Elaborate Nevertheless, ___________resulting in ___________. Evidence Furthermore, ___________________. In this case, ______________________. Elaborate Although _________, ____________. However, ______________________. Link: All in all, _______________.