Text Types

Purpose of Text Types

Texts have different purposes and structures to communicate a message with different conventions in language and form.

LITERARY TEXTS

Literary works have clear stylistic elements that make them literary such as characterization, metaphor, irony conflict, symbolism, and offer more layered meaning and themes. Literary works are narrative (tell a story) or lyrical (express an emotion or idea) in nature. Literary texts include short stories, novels, plays, poetry, songs, etc.

NON-LITERARY TEXTS

Non-literary texts can be expository (to explain or inform), technical (to instruct or explain a process) or persuasive (convince or call to action). Non-literary texts are more concerned with information, facts, and reality to document issues or to explain or analyze something or even argue for a certain viewpoint.

Narrative or Lyrical (literary types)

  • To entertain

  • To recount or tell a story

  • To describe

Features: character, setting, conflict, theme, imagery, first person sometimes, description, plot elements, figurative language, pathos

Organizational patterns: description, cause/effect, problem/solution, sequence

Examples:

  1. narratives: novel, short story, myth, legend, science fiction, fantasy, fable, cartoon, stage play, television script, radio script, zines, diary, letters, videos

  2. poetry: sonnet, limerick, haiku, epic balad, songs

Expository (non-literary)

  • To describe

  • To inform

  • To analyze

  • To explain

Features: headings, bold words, charts, graph, captions, logos, ethos

Organizational patterns: sequence, cause/effect, problem/solution, description, topic sentences to organize paragraphs, thesis, technical terms or jargon

Examples:

1. report: documentary, reference book

2. recount: journal, diary, newspaper article, timeline, scientific observations (lab report)

Technical (non-literary)

  • To explain process

  • To instruct

  • To describe

Features: steps to a process, use of command terms (put, place), words to indicate sequence, logos

Organizational patterns: sequence, cause/effect, problem/solution, description


Examples:

  • 1. procedures: instructions, recipes, directions

Persuasive (non-literary)

  • To persuade

  • To convince

  • To perform an action

Features: call to action, words to expresses feelings or opinions, counterargument, claim, evidence, analogies, formal language, facts, statistics, testimonies, logos, pathos, ethos, clear thesis, logical transitions

Organizational patterns: sequence, cause/effect, problem/solution, description

Examples:

  • 1. advertisement: television, print, radio, billboards, digital ads

  • 2. opinion: letter to the editor, editorial, speech, newspaper or magazine article, digital article, blogging, debate, zines

  • 3. response: movie review, book review, restaurant review

Definitions for Text Types

Narrative Texts

Narrative Fiction

  1. novel: a fictitious prose narrative that is usually long and complex with characters, conflicts, and themes. Novels can fall in a number of genres: science fiction, fantasy, magical realism, realistic fiction, romance, historical fiction, etc.

  2. novella: A shorter novel (between a novel and a short story) fictional narrative.

  3. short story: a story with a theme but shorter and less developed than a novel.

  4. myth: a story about the early history of a people that explains some human experience and typically involves supernatural beings which cannot be proven as historical fact

  5. legend: a story about human events that is presumed to have some basis in historical fact and tends to mention real people or events.

  6. legend: a story about human events that is presumed to have some basis in historical fact and tends to mention real people or events.

  7. fable: a short story, typically with animals as characters, conveying a moral.

  8. fairy tale: a children's story about magical and imaginary beings and lands.

  9. cartoon: a simple drawing where people, animals, or objects are drawn in a humorously exaggerated way, especially a satirical ones; cartoons are mostly fiction since they exaggerate reality.

  10. drama: a play for theater, radio, or television.

  11. screenplay or script: A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television program, radio, or video game. Screenplay can be nonfiction or fiction.

  12. parody: a narrative work or writing style that mocks or mimics another work in order to ridicule

  13. pastiche: an artistic work in a style that imitates that of another work, artist, or period.

  14. diary entries: a record of entries usually in chronological order that details a person's thoughts, feelings, reactions to evens in his or her life. Authentic diary entries are nonfiction, but an author may choose to write diary entries for a character to tell a story.

  15. letters: written or type communication that can either be 1) informal between friends, family members, or acquaintances with a casual tone or 2) formal between two people that may relate to business, politics, or some professional capacity. Typically, letters are nonfiction, but sometimes writers choose to tell a story as an epistolary novel in the form of letters.

  16. lyrics: words of a song that usually expresses an attitude or perspective on some topic or feeling.

  17. zine: self-published pamphlet that are locally distributed

Narrative Nonfiction

  1. memoir: A narrative about a period in someone's life

  2. autobiography: an account of a person's life written by that person.

  3. biography: an account of a person's life written by another person.

  4. personal narrative: A short prose narrative usually told in first person about an event in someone's life.

  5. screenplay or script: A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television program, radio, or video game. Screenplay can be nonfiction or fiction.

  6. diary entries: a record of entries usually in chronological order that details a person's thoughts, feelings, reactions to evens in his or her life. Authentic diary entries are nonfiction, but an author may choose to write diary entries for a character to tell a story.

  7. letters: written or type communication that can either be 1) informal between friends, family members, or acquaintances with a casual tone or 2) formal between two people that may relate to business, politics, or some professional capacity. Typically, letters are nonfiction, but sometimes writers choose to tell a story as an epistolary novel in the form of letters.

  8. poetry: type of literature written in verse (not prose) that can be lyric, narrative, or dramatic in form and use connotative language and sound devices. While poetry is typically considered to be more literary fiction, many poets write about their own experiences giving poetry non-fiction elements.

  9. travel writing: a genre of writing in which the author describes places they have visited and their experiences while traveling.

Expository Texts

  1. academic essay: an essay with a clear thesis that is then supported by relevant evidence and elaboration to prove a point

  2. critical review: often an academic essay that provides a critical personal response to literary or non-literary text, making evaluating judgments on the effectiveness of the work

  3. newspaper article: a piece of writing in a daily or weekly publication containing news and articles mean to inform an audience of a specific topic with relevant details; may use facts, statistics, witness testimony, opinions, and imagery.

  4. magazine article: a piece of writing in bi-monthly or monthly magazine containing news and articles mean to inform an audience of a specific topic with relevant details; may use facts, statistics, witness testimony, opinions, and imagery. Magazine articles may be expository and/or persuasive in nature.

  5. blog: a regularly updated website or web page, typically one run by an individual or small group, that is written in an informal or conversational style. A blog can be expository or persuasive in nature, possibly blending both modes

  6. website: a location connected to the Internet that maintains one or more pages on the internet. Websites can be expository or persuasive in nature depending on the purpose and audience.

  7. Interview transcript: the recorded conversation, published in a magazine or an online website, involving a meeting of people face to face either in person or virtually

  8. letters: written or type communication that can either be 1) informal between friends, family members, or acquaintances with a casual tone or 2) formal between two people that may relate to business, politics, or some professional capacity. Typically, letters are nonfiction, but sometimes writers choose to tell a story as an epistolary novel in the form of letters.

Persuasive Texts

  1. advertising campaign: a series of advertisements to promote a product or service that could appear in television, radio, print, outdoor, or online communications

  2. editorial: an opinionated article that states the position of a publication's editorial board on a specific issue

  3. op-ed: a short for opposite editorial, is an opinionated article submitted to a newspaper for publication by people in the community that are not affiliated with the publication.

  4. manifesto: a written statement declaring publicly the intentions, motives, or views of its issuer, such as a government, sovereign, organization, political group, etc.

  5. blog: a regularly updated website or web page, typically one run by an individual or small group, that is written in an informal or conversational style. A blog can be expository or persuasive in nature, possibly blending both modes

  6. website: a location connected to the Internet that maintains one or more pages on the internet. Websites can be expository or persuasive in nature depending on the purpose and audience.

  7. letters: written or type communication that can either be 1) informal between friends, family members, or acquaintances with a casual tone or 2) formal between two people that may relate to business, politics, or some professional capacity. Typically, letters are nonfiction, but sometimes writers choose to tell a story as an epistolary novel in the form of letters.

  8. magazine article: a piece of writing in bi-monthly or monthly magazine containing news and articles mean to inform an audience of a specific topic with relevant details; may use facts, statistics, witness testimony, opinions, and imagery. Magazine articles may be expository and/or persuasive in nature.

Technical Texts

  1. traditional: repair manuals, medical studies

  2. end-user documentation: manuals for electronics or consumer products, recipes

  3. technical marketing content: press releases, catalogs,

Organizational Patterns

  1. Sequence: a specific order, steps

  2. Problem and solution: problem that is described with events and then solved

  3. Compare and contrast: comparing how things are similar and different

  4. Description: details

  5. Cause/effect: something causes something else to happen

Links to Different Text Types

Online Magazine Articles

Do you want to write a magazine article, but don't know how to format it? Check out Canvas' templates at https://www.canva.com/learn/how-to-recreate-a-magazine-layout-from-scratch/.

Check out various magazines/online sources:


Editorials

How to write an editorial

Look at examples of editorials:


Editorialists who have won awards for their work or have been recognized by community or their peers



Speech

How to write a speech (Ted Talk format)


How to write a political speech

https://write.co.nz/6-tips-for-writing-a-powerful-political-campaign-speech/

https://callhub.io/how-to-write-a-political-speech/

Interviews

Examples of transcript of an interview

https://www.popsci.com/features/interview-with-president-barack-obama/


https://www.wsj.com/articles/transcript-of-donald-trump-interview-with-the-wall-street-journal-1515715481


Zines

https://www.binderymke.com/what-is-a-zine

Book Reviews

https://www.npr.org/sections/book-reviews/

https://www.nytimes.com/section/books/review

https://www.newyorker.com/recommends/read

Art Reviews

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/art/reviews/

http://www.artnet.com/magazineus/reviews/reviews.asp

Newspapers

News Sources

Interviews

Short Stories

https://americanliterature.com/high-school-short-stories

Art

Advertising

Editorials/Op-Eds (Opinionated Non-fiction)

Political Cartoons

Poetry

Songs


TV/Movies


Screenplay or script


Media Bias

Are you curious how people perceive a publication based on their media bias? Is a newspaper more LEFT or RIGHT leaving or CENTER?

https://www.allsides.com/media-bias/media-bias-ratings