Text Types


Texts have different purposes and structures to communicate a message with different conventions in language and form.

Narrative (literary types)

  • To entertain
  • To recount or tell a story
  • To describe

Features: character, setting, conflict, theme, imagery, first person sometimes, description, plot elements, figurative language, pathos

Organizational patterns: description, cause/effect, problem/solution, sequence


  1. narratives: novel, short story, myth, legend, science fiction, fantasy, fable, cartoon, stage play, television script, radio script
  2. poetry: sonnet, limerick, haiku, epic balad


  • To describe
  • To inform
  • To analyze
  • To explain

Features: headings, bold words, charts, graph, captions, logos, ethos

Organizational patterns: sequence, cause/effect, problem/solution, description, topic sentences to organize paragraphs, thesis, technical terms or jargon


1. report: documentary, reference book

2. recount: journal, diary, newspaper article, timeline, scientific observations (lab report)


  • To explain process
  • To instruct
  • To describe

Features: steps to a process, use of command terms (put, place), words to indicate sequence, logos

Organizational patterns: sequence, cause/effect, problem/solution, description


  • 1. procedures: instructions, recipes, directions


  • To persuade
  • To convince
  • To perform an action

Features: call to action, words to expresses feelings or opinions, counterargument, claim, evidence, analogies, formal language, facts, statistics, testimonies, logos, pathos, ethos, clear thesis, logical transitions

Organizational patterns: sequence, cause/effect, problem/solution, description


  • 1. advertisement: television, print, radio, billboards, digital ads
  • 2. opinion: letter to the editor, editorial, speech, newspaper or magazine article, digital article, blogging, debate
  • 3. response: movie review, book review, restaurant review

Organizational Patterns

  1. Sequence: a specific order, steps
  2. Problem and solution: problem that is described with events and then solved
  3. Compare and contrast: comparing how things are similar and different
  4. Description: details
  5. Cause/effect: something causes something else to happen

Links to Different Text Types